Welcome to Indonesia
The archipelago of Indonesia consists of more than 13,000 islands, spread over an area that is similar in size to that of the continental United States. It is the country with the greatest number and density of active volcanoes. Most volcanoes in Indonesia belong to the Sunda Volcanic Arc, streching over 3,000 kilometers from NW Sumatra to the Banda Sea. This volcanic arc results from the subduction of Indian Ocean crust beneath the Asian Plate and includes 76% of the region’s volcanoes. To the NNW, the basaltic volcanism of the Andaman Islands results from short spreading centers, and to the east the Banda Arc reflects Pacific Ocean crust subducted westward. North of this arc, the tectonic setting is much more complex: several fragments of plates are converging to form multiple subduction zones, mainly oriented N-S. These produce the Sulawesi-Sangihe volcanoes on the west and Haimahera on the east of the collision zone.
Indonesia leads the world in many volcano statistics. It has the largest number of historically active volcanoes (76), its total of 1,171 dated eruptions is only narrowly exceeded by Japan’s 1,274, although not much is know about the volcanic activity in the time before European colonialists arrived from the 15th century on. Indonesia has suffered the highest numbers of eruptions producing fatalities, damage to arable land, mudflows, tsunamis, domes, and pyroclastic flows. Four-fifths of Indonesian volcanoes with dated eruptions have erupted in this century.
Two of the most devastating volcanic eruptinos in historic time took place in Indonesia: the enormous eruption of Tambora in 1815,- the largest known eruption of the world during historical times,- had such far-reaching effects on the climate that for instance Europe was to experience 1816 as the year without summer. In 1883, the disastrous eruption of Krakatau carved itself deeply into the collective memory of mankind. The eruption of Krakatau was followed by severe tsunamis that killed about 30-40,000 people.
In 1920, a volcano survey was established by the Dutch-led government, leading to much improved volcano monitoring and reporting. The Volcanological Survey of Indonesia (VSI) now operates a network of 64 volcano observatories continuously monitoring 59 volcanoes.
Krakatau or Krakatau ” One of the legend volcano on earth ”
The legendary Krakatau lies about 60 km from Carita Beach. Today only a small part of the origin volcano remains, but when Krakatau blew itself apart in 1883, in one of the world’s greatest and the most catastrophic eruptions, the effects were recorded far beyond Sunda strait and it achieved instant and lasting infamy. For centuries Krakatau had been a familiar nautical landmark for much of the world’s maritime traffic which was funneled through the narrow Sunda Strait. The volcano had been dormant since 1680 and was widely regarded as extinct but from may through to early August in 1883 passing ship reported moderate activity, by 26 August Krakatau was raging and explosions become more and more violent. At 10 am on 27 August Krakatau erupted with the biggest bang ever recorded on earth. On the island Rodriguez more than 4600 km to the SW, police chief reported hearing booming of “ heavy guns from eastward’; in Alice Spring, 3500 km to the SE , Resident also reported hearing strange explosions from the NW. Read More
Rakata (pronounced /rəˈkɑːtə/ rə-kah-tə) is a collapsed stratovolcano of the Indonesian island of Krakatoa (Indonesian: Krakatau) in the Sunda Strait between the islands of Sumatra and Java. Standing 813 metres (2,667 ft) tall, it was the largest and southernmost of three volcanoes that formed the island Krakatoa (the others being Danan and Perboewatan) and the only one not totally destroyed in the eruption of 1883. Rakata did lose its northern half in that eruption, leaving just its southern half. The exposed cliff is quite striking visually, partially of a large exposed dike terminating in a large lenticular extrusion at the middle of the almost vertical cliff. The feature has been called “the Eye of Krakatoa.” Read more…
Danan (uncertain derivation) was one of the three volcanic cones (the others being Perboewatan and Rakata) on the island of Krakatoa, in the Sunda Strait, in Indonesia. It stood 450 metres (1,480 ft), laid in the central area of the island, and may have been a twin volcano. Danan was virtually destroyed in the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa, only a rocky islet named Bootsmansrots remains of it. Read more ….
Perboewatan (also spelled Perbuatan; apparently a Malay word of uncertain dervivation) was one of the three main volcanic cones (the others being Danan and Rakata) on the island of Krakatoa (or Krakatau), in the Sunda Strait, in Indonesia. It was the lowest (400 ft) and northernmost of the cones. Perboewatan was completely destroyed in the 1883 eruption; the caldera is approximately 1,800 feet (550 m) deep where it had been. Read more